Indian Renewable Energy Development: Measures to Promote Sustainable Energy
Indian Renewable Energy Development: Measures to Promote Sustainable Energy

Learn renewable energy development from the best IAS coaching in Trivandrum


The Indian renewable energy development sector aims to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, mitigate climate change, and promote energy security. India's quest for sustainable development has led to significant strides in renewable energy. This article delves into various renewable energy sources and the measures taken to promote them in India.

Solar Energy


Solar energy harnesses the sun's power through photovoltaic cells and solar thermal systems. India, with its tropical climate, has immense potential for solar energy.

Measures to Promote Solar Energy

  1. National Solar Mission: Launched in 2010, this mission aims to achieve 100 GW of solar power by 2022. It focuses on increasing grid-connected solar power capacity.
  2. Subsidies and Incentives: The government offers subsidies for rooftop solar installations and incentives for solar power developers.
  3. Solar Parks: India has developed several large-scale solar parks, such as the Bhadla Solar Park in Rajasthan, to facilitate large solar power projects.
  4. Net Metering: This policy allows consumers to sell excess solar power back to the grid, promoting household solar installations.

Live Example

The Rewa Solar Power Project in Madhya Pradesh, with a capacity of 750 MW, is one of the largest solar power plants in India. It has significantly contributed to the state's renewable energy targets.

Wind Energy


Wind energy utilizes wind turbines to convert wind power into electricity. India's long coastline and favorable wind conditions make it ideal for wind energy.

Measures to Promote Wind Energy

  1. National Wind Mission: This mission aims to boost wind energy capacity to 60 GW by 2022. It focuses on both onshore and offshore wind energy development.
  2. Feed-in Tariffs: The government offers fixed tariffs for wind power producers to ensure financial viability.
  3. Wind Resource Assessment: The Indian government conducts extensive wind resource assessments to identify potential sites for wind farms.
  4. Repowering Policy: This policy encourages the replacement of old wind turbines with modern, efficient ones to increase productivity.

Live Example

The Muppandal Wind Farm in Tamil Nadu is one of India's largest onshore wind farms, with a capacity of around 1,500 MW. It has been instrumental in reducing the state's reliance on conventional energy sources.



Hydropower generates electricity by harnessing the energy of flowing water. India has significant potential for both large and small hydropower projects.

Measures to Promote Hydropower

  1. Hydro Power Policy 2008: This policy provides financial support and incentives for developing hydropower projects.
  2. Subsidies for Small Hydro Projects: The government offers subsidies for small hydropower projects, especially in remote and hilly areas.
  3. Renovation and Modernization: Initiatives are in place to renovate and modernize existing hydropower plants to enhance efficiency.
  4. Expedited Clearances: The government has streamlined the clearance process for hydropower projects to reduce delays.

Live Example

The Tehri Dam in Uttarakhand, with a capacity of 1,000 MW, is one of India's largest hydropower projects. It plays a crucial role in meeting the state's energy needs and managing water resources.

Biomass Energy


Biomass energy utilizes organic materials like agricultural residues and animal waste to produce electricity and heat. It offers a sustainable way to manage waste and generate energy.

Measures to Promote Biomass Energy

  1. National Biomass Policy: This policy promotes biomass energy by providing financial incentives and support for research and development.
  2. Subsidies and Incentives: The government offers subsidies for biomass power plants and biogas projects.
  3. Waste-to-Energy Programs: Initiatives are in place to convert municipal and agricultural waste into energy.
  4. Research and Development: The government supports R&D to improve biomass conversion technologies and enhance efficiency.

Live Example

The Akshay Urja Biomass Power Plant in Punjab, with a capacity of 10 MW, utilizes agricultural residues to generate electricity, providing a sustainable energy solution for the region.

Geothermal Energy


Geothermal energy harnesses the Earth's internal heat to generate electricity and provide heating. India has potential geothermal sites in states like Himachal Pradesh and Jammu & Kashmir.

Measures to Promote Geothermal Energy

  1. Geothermal Energy Policy: This policy provides a framework for the exploration and development of geothermal resources.
  2. Exploration and Assessment: The government conducts geological surveys to identify and assess potential geothermal sites.
  3. Pilot Projects: Initiatives are in place to develop pilot geothermal projects to demonstrate feasibility and attract investment.
  4. International Collaboration: India collaborates with countries experienced in geothermal energy to leverage expertise and technology.

Live Example

The Puga Valley in Ladakh is being explored for its geothermal potential. Pilot projects are underway to tap into this renewable energy source.

Ocean Energy


Ocean energy includes tidal, wave, and ocean thermal energy. India’s vast coastline presents significant potential for harnessing ocean energy.

Measures to Promote Ocean Energy

  1. Ocean Energy Policy: This policy outlines the development and utilization of ocean energy resources.
  2. Research and Development: The government supports R&D to advance ocean energy technologies.
  3. International Collaboration: India partners with countries leading in ocean energy to develop expertise and infrastructure.
  4. Pilot Projects: Initiatives are in place to launch pilot projects for tidal and wave energy.

Live Example

The tidal energy project in the Gulf of Kutch, Gujarat, is one of the pilot initiatives aimed at harnessing ocean energy in India.


India's renewable energy development is crucial for sustainable growth and energy security. Various measures promote renewable energy sources, including solar, wind, hydropower, biomass, geothermal, and ocean energy. These efforts aim to reduce carbon emissions, enhance energy access, and create a greener future. With continued support and innovation, India is poised to become a global leader in renewable energy.

Important terms - Learn for UPSC from the Best IAS Coaching in Trivandrum

  • Indian renewable energy development
  • Renewable energy promotion
  • Solar energy India
  • Wind energy India
  • Hydropower India
  • Biomass energy India
  • Geothermal energy India
  • Ocean energy India
  • National Solar Mission
  • Renewable energy subsidies
  • Feed-in tariffs
  • Wind resource assessment
  • Hydro Power Policy
  • Biomass policy
  • Waste-to-energy programs
  • Geothermal exploration
  • Ocean energy policy

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